Both device- and knowledge-based help thwart automated bots, while device-based help thwart phishing and even targeted attacks.



If you don’t have a recovery phone number established, then we might fall back on the weaker knowledge-based challenges, like recalling your last sign-in location. This is an effective defense against bots, but protection rates for phishing can drop to as low as 10%. The same vulnerability exists for targeted attacks. That’s because phishing pages and targeted attackers can trick you into revealing any additional identifying information we might ask for.

Given the benefits of challenges, one might ask why we don’t require them for all sign-ins. The answer is that challenges introduce additional friction and increase the risk of account lockout. In an experiment, 38% of users did not have access to their phone when challenged. Another 34% of users could not recall their secondary email address.

If you lose access to your phone, or can’t solve a challenge, you can always return to a trusted device you previously logged in from to gain access to your account.

Digging into “hack for hire” attacks

Where most bots and phishing attacks are blocked by our automatic protections, targeted attacks are more pernicious. As part of our ongoing efforts to monitor hijacking threats, we have been investigating emerging “hack for hire” criminal groups that purport to break into a single account for a fee on the order of $750 USD. These attackers often rely on spear phishing emails that impersonate family members, colleagues, government officials, or even Google. If the target doesn’t fall for the first spear phishing attempt, follow-on attacks persist for upwards of a month.

- login flow 25402x - How effective is basic account hygiene at preventing hijacking

Example man-in-the-middle phishing attack that checks for password validity in real-time. Afterwards, the page prompts victims to disclose SMS authentication codes to access the ’s account.

We estimate just one in a million users face this level of risk. Attackers don’t target random individuals though. While the research shows that our automatic protections can help delay, and even prevent as many as 66% of the targeted attacks that we studied, we still recommend that high-risk users enroll in our Advanced Protection Program. In fact, zero users that exclusively use security keys fell victim to targeted phishing during our investigation.






Take a moment to help keep your account secure

Just like buckling a seat belt, take a moment to follow our five tips to help keep your account secure. As our research shows, one of the easiest things you can do to protect your Google Account is to set up a recovery phone number. For high-risk users—like journalists, activists, business leaders, and political campaign teams—our Advanced Protection Program provides the highest level of security. You can also help protect your non-Google accounts from third-party password breaches by installing the Password Checkup Chrome extension.



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